Future Work Research and Development - Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulu
Future Work Research and Development
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Future Work Research and Development

Future Work Research and Development

Exploring Future Work

Future Work Research and Development (Future Work R&D) is being established in 2019 to contribute to HAMK Edu Research Unit with a specific focus and interest on exploring transforming work, future skills of professionals and continuous learning. Its goals are to 1) apply educational research and development in close collaboration and dialogue with companies, 2) foster dynamic public-private partnerships with the world of work, and 3) enable new and innovative continuous learning opportunities to professionals at work.

Digitalization, globalization and workforce ageing with a rapid decline in routine work give rise to new forms of work in future. OECD (2019) estimates that 65% of the children currently at school work in professions that does not yet exist, such as “vertical urban gardener” or “drone controller”. The transformation of jobs require new and different skills; reskilling and upskilling professional competencies becomes imperative in every career. In addition to STEM and basic digital skills, there is evidence of a need in generic, transferable skills (“21st century skills”) including collaborative problem-solving, critical thinking and creativity. New, agile and flexible solutions for continuous training are needed, as well as better synchronization of technology, competence development and qualification of employees.

Future Work R&D is a spin-off research initiative of Global Education R&D of HAMK Edu, where global partners are constantly looking for scalable models to strengthen learning between educational institutions and companies. Employment, innovations and continuous learning are considered as key factors to build sustainable societies and “conditions that allow people to have quality jobs that stimulate the economy while not harming the environment” (UN Agenda 2030).

In further, Future Work R&D contributes to multidisciplinary Bio 4.0 Research Hub of HAMK with an interest of innovation and ecosystem development and collaborative learning in networks. The team implements its research results in design of company coaching and consultation, and degree programs, teacher education, and in-service training at Häme University of Applied Science (HAMK) and its partner organizations.

OECD (2019), OECD Employment Outlook 2019: The Future of Work, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9ee00155-en.

The Research Interests of Future Work Research and Development:

1) The transformation of professions and skills
1.1 Generic, transferable skills of future professionals including resilience and self-compassion
1.2 Vocational teachers’ and on-the job- trainers’ future competencies

2) New approaches to competence development
2.1 Technology-enhanced learning at work, e.g. simulations, gaming, virtual reality, AI and smart devices to enhance self-reflection
2.2 Software-human guidance in personalization of learning and learning at work

3) Continuous learning across boundaries and in networks

3.1 Transdisciplinary innovation development and implementation in communities and ecosystems
3.2 Collaborative production of innovation and learning in networks

Figure 1. The Research Interests of Future Work Research & Development (Ryymin, Eerola, Korhonen, Maetoloa, Paananen, Postareff & Viskari, 2019).

 

Projects:

Innovative Training Solutions for Learning at Work in Disruptive Industries (StiLLLearning) 2020-2022

The goal of the project is to research continuous learning and key competences in industries that are strongly experiencing digital disruption (and now also Covid-19) in Europe. In further, the goal is to co-create new training solutions for learning at work (WBL) together with partner companies including digital cMOOC for competence developers.

Parters: Häme University of Applied Sciences  (Coordinator),  Cometa Formazione (Italy), Bildungswerk der Niedersächsischen Wirtschaft gemeinn GmbH (Germany) and Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training SFIVET (Switzerland). Network of large and SME companies from Finland, Germany, Switzerland and Italy from manufacturing industry, clothing, textile and design, and tourism. Erasmus Plus -project.

Strengthen Socio-Emotional Competence to Guidance practitioners (STRENGTh) 2019-2022

The STRENGTh project focuses on increasing Social and Emotional competence of career counsellors. The aim of the project is to propose concrete solutions to train a new generation of socially aware career guidance professionals, able to develop and use interpersonal and social intelligence skills, in order to successfully build professional relationships and navigate diverse social environments.

Partners: Centrul Municipiului Bucuresti de Resurse si Asistenta Educationala (Coordinator, Romania). HAMK University of Applied Sciences, School of Professional Teacher Education/HAMK Edu (Finland), Etaireia Proigmenon Efarmogon Sistimaton Dioikisis-Monoprosopi Etareia Periopismensis Eythinis (Greece), Hochschule der Bunderagentur Für Arbeit (Germany), Studio risorse s.r.l. (Italy), Stichting Network for Innovation in Career Guidance and Counselling in Europe (NICE Foundation) (Netherlands), Uniao das Freguesias de Gondomar (SCOSME) Valbom E Jovim (Portugal), Institutul de Stiinte Ale Educatiei (Romania). Erasmus Plus -project.

NextSteps@TechVET (2020-2023)

The project aims to develop partnerships that promote WBL in VET and support professional development (especially guidance skills) of people involved in the WBL process and the internationalization of VET.

The project responds to the EU priorities for Vocational Education Training aiming to promote Work-Based Learning in all its forms, by involving companies and VET providers. It promotes WBL and teachers’ and trainers’ professional development through the recognition of the current state and development needs regarding cooperation between VET institutions and working life; especially focusing on guidance (incl. career guidance and workplace guidance in physical and digital environments); development of pedagogically considered educational materials to support guidance skills and cooperation between education and work; promotion of best practices for WBL from the perspectives of teachers, students and working life and the improvement, recognition and accreditation of guidance skills through the development of digital open badge-driven learning process.

HAMK coordinates the project. Project partners are Koulutuskuntayhtymä Tavastia Finland; Kouvolan kaupunki (City of Kouvola) Finland; Vidzemes Tehnoloģiju un dizaina tehnikums Latvia; Tallinna Lasnamäe Mehaanikakool Estonia and Stichting voor Christelijk beroepsonderwijs en volwassen educatie Friesland/Flevoland Netherlands

More information:
www.hamk.fi/techvet
https://www.youtube.com/embed/IkBrHIDL0Ao?fbclid=IwAR3fNT9QbG_Zu3joJ_QzXu3yANtigpM_H0QcMJwc0jDu6954U5ayJxQXQjI

Continuous Opportunities for Learning (CoOL@Work) 2020-2022

The project creates more knowledge and understanding of employees’ learning experiences and opportunities. The project adopts versatile data collection methods to obtain multifaceted information on learning, including a survey, interviews and a physiological measurement of electrodermal activity (EDA) and activation levels with a Moodmetric smart ring. The collected data is used to develop learning opportunities at the participating organisations. My duty is to contribute to the research design, data gathering and reporting, company relations and digital solutions design.

Partners: Häme University of Applied Sciences  (Coordinator),  Tampere University, The University of Turku, The Finnish Work Environment Fund, three large companies from transportation, manufacturing industry and social welfare.

Education Reform and Development Programme for TVET Managers from the Dominican Republic 2018-2020

The programme aims to enhance educational managers’ and pedagogical developers’ competence in nationwide vocational education reform. The programme includes 1) development of competence-based curriculum, 2) student assessment, 3) digital and physical learning environments, 4) co-operation between educational institutions and the world of work, 5) professional teacher education, 6) digital competence development of educators and students and 7) development of supervising and leadership model for INFOTEP. The project produces the renewed pedagogical model for INFOTEP and support research-based development of national teacher education system.

Partners: Häme University of Applied Sciences and its governmental customer organizations from the Dominican Republic

Continuous Learning at Work 2020-2021

Successful organizations are innovative, adaptive, and ever-changing and this needs the skill and knowledge of the qualified workforce as well as continuous learning at work. Work-based learning can be, for instance, formal and informal, social or / and self-directed learning. Engagement to continuous learning may be, however, challenging. It requires time, resources, commitment and motivation. The goal of the project is to investigate those organization- , team- and individual-related factors that support and challenge continuous learning at work, especially  in transforming branches influenced strongly by digitalisation and globalisation. The research results will be implemented in planning innovative strategies for promoting efficient continuous learning at work.

Partners: The Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK ry), Häme University of Applied Sciences, four large companies from Finland representing metal industry, transportation and aviation, retail and health care. Advisory partner: SITRA.

Future Skills of Professions and Vocational Teachers in the Changing Society 2019-

skills

One of the leading research interests of Future Work R&D is to explore vocational teachers’ and educators’ future skills. What kind of skills and competencies should teachers have for enabling their students to succeed in their learning processes and future professions? How to engage and guide learning through personalized study paths in schools and in the world of work, and foster collaborative learning? What kind of competencies teachers need themselves in their own career transformation, how e.g. systematic self-reflection can enhance teachers’ professional development? What are vocational teachers’ generic and transferable skills? What kind of roles do psychological flexibility (resilience) and self-compassion play in teachers’ well-being, engagement and change management?

Future Work R&D is continuously exploring answers to these research questions through ongoing data gathering and research collaboration with School of Education of University of Helsinki, University of Turku and University of Tampere, and network of Schools of Professional Teacher Education in Finland.

Innovation Development in Multidisciplinary Teams in Bio 4.0 2019-2022

The strategic goal of the project Bioeconomy 4.0 project of HAMK is to utilize possibilities of the fourth industrial revolution (digitalization, IoT, data analytics) in sustainable bio-processes and carbon sequestration. The initiative combines the efforts of all four research units of HAMK, HAMK Bio, HAMK Tech, HAMK Smart and HAMK Edu, to serve the same goal: developing the Bioeconomy 4.0 framework, and a multidisciplinary Bio Hub Lab to HAMK. The specific research interest of Future Work R&D, and its partner Digital Work and Learning -Reseach Unit from Helsinki University, is knowledge creation for innovation development in multidisciplinary practical research projects. The aim is to develop a methodological framework on how to follow complex projects in networks on multiple levels, where innovations are developed and implemented by diverse actors with the use of technology and various digital tools.

Partners: Ministry of Education, Finland, University of Helsinki (Digital Work and Learning Research Unit), Aalto University, Network of large and small and medium-sized enterprises in bioeconomy industry.

Cobots Transforming Work and Learning 2019-2021

presenting a robot

Photo: Nea Saarinen, HAMK

The research and development -project of HAMK Tech (School of Technology) and HAMK Edu examines the implementation and development of cobots (co-robots or collaborative robots, Y-generation of the industrial robots) intended to physically interact with humans in a shared workspace. The goal is to find effective practices for production and work quality in cobot-human work processes and to create web-based solutions for work-based learning of on-demand skills of robotization in companies and engineering education. The long-term goal of the project is to promote partner companies’ competitiveness and strengthen regional and national innovation and learning ecosystem of Industry 4.0.

Partners: Regional Council of Häme, European Regional Development Fund, Network of large companies and small and medium-sized enterprises in steel and construction industry

DC4WORK Learning at Work in a Digital Age – Promoting Digital Competences for Employability and Innovation 2017-2019

In DC4WORK-project Future Work R&D analyzes and documents, on the basis of the EU Framework DigComp 2.0, the demand for employment-related digital competences in SMEs (especially in trade and tourism) and produces solutions for flexible continuous training. The goal is to provide also the knowledge and instruments to raise awareness of digital disruption of work and to promote a better synchronization of technology, organizations and digital competence development of employees.

Partners: IHK-Projektgesellschaft mbH Frankfurt (Germany, coordinator), Häme University of Applied Sciences, School of Professional Teacher Education (Finland), Mentortec – Business consultant & VET provider (Portugal), BFI Tirol – VET provider (Austria), European Forum of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (EfVET) (Belgium), Network of European small and medium-sized enterprises in trade and tourism.

Reform of VET in Teachnical Fields (TEFORMI) 2018-2020

people smiling

Photo: HAMK

The goal of TEFORMI is to form dynamic partnerships between vocational schools, world of work and universities of applied sciences to respond to the shortage of qualified workers and skills in the transforming industries. The partnerships will focus especially on mechanical and manufacturing industry, vehicle technology, electrical and automation technology and building maintenance technology. The goal of TEFORMI is to accelerate continuous learning by building hybrid learning environments for shared use of schools and industries and to train vocational teachers to be more aware of regional skills and workforce needs. In further, the project contributes to the Baltic Sea Strategy by fostering international partnerships in hybrid learning environment innovations and ecosystem building.

Partners: European Social Fund, Regional Council of Häme, Kouvola Region Vocational College, Tavastia Vocational College, Network of large companies and small and medium-sized enterprises in manufacturing and vehicle technology industry.

The Fast Vocational Path to the Labour Market (NOPSA) 2016-2019

A woman moving a sheet metal plate.

NOPSA – “The fast vocational path to the labour market” -project strives to find solutions to streamline the transition from vocational education and training to further studies in universities of applied sciences, and to speed up the study path leading to the labour market. The specific focus is on the fields of technology, communication and transport, where the shortage of qualified employees is remarkable. The project has generated scalable practices, models and digital solutions to transition streamlining and it follows the framework of the national reform of vocational upper secondary education in Finland.

Partners: European Social Fund, The North Ostrobothnia Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment, Satakunta university of applied sciences, Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Centria University of Applied Sciences, City of Turku / Turku Vocational Institute, Careeria, City of Tampere / Tampere Vocational College Tredu, WinNova Länsirannikon Koulutus Oy Ltd.

Creve 2.0 – Collaboration Model for Creative Business Services 2018-2020

brainstorm image.

The aim of the Creve 2.0 -project is to create a national structure of services for creative industries that has constant collaboration with other industries, business services, educational institutions and other supporting services. The project co-operates with other projects dealing with creative industries as well as both growth and restructuring the industrial field. The project concentrates on availability of business services, boosting use of mediator services and finding new funding possibilities. It will tackle the hinders in growth that are based on shortages in education and know-how. The project will also create collaboration models for the usage of creative industries in other branches of industries as well as in other parts of modern and future oriented society. The project manager is HUMAK University of Applied Sciences

Partners: Häme University of Applied Sciences (HAMK), Aalto University, University of Lapland, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Design Centre MUOVA, Österbottens hantverk rf (The House of Crafts Loftet).

Partners at HAMK:

HAMK Bio
HAMK Smart 
HAMK Tech
HAMK Design Factory 
Bioeconomy 4.0
Finnish Academy for Skills Excellence
Global Education Research and Development

Networks:

The European Association for Practitioner Research on Improving Learning (EAPRIL)
The European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI)
The Finnish Educational Research Association (FERA)
The Finnish Innovation Fund (SITRA)
The Finnish Vocational Educational Research Association (OTTU ry)
National Foresight Network (Foresight.fi)
EduLearn Conference
Sotepeda 24/7

Selected publications

2021

Ryymin, E., Lamberg, L. & Hiltunen, A. (2021). Käytäntöjä toimivan virtuaalityöpajan järjestämiseen. HAMK Unlimited Professional 13.1.2021.

2020

Korhonen, A.-M., Ruhalahti, S., Lakkala, M. & Veermans, M. (2020). Vocational student teachers’ self-reported experiences in creating ePortfolios. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 7(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.13152/IJRVET.7.3.2

Korhonen, A-M., Ruhalahti, S. & Niinimäki, J. (2020). Finnish Vocational Teachers’ Competences Made Visible by Open Badges. Higher Education Theory and Practice. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v20i6.3138

Korhonen, A.-M. & Ryymin, E. (2020). Redesigning Learning at Work – Experiments of “Digital Competence Facilitator” MOOC. HAMK Unlimited Journal 21.4.2020.

Paananen, H. (2020, May 11). Osuvaa oppimisanalytiikkaa. [Blog post]. Retrieved from: https://tieke.fi/osuvaa-oppimisanalytiikkaa

Paananen, H. (2020, May 14). Koronatsunami mullisti luovat alat – mitä opimme liiketoimintamallien ketterästä kehittämisestä? [Blog post]. Retrieved from: https://www.creve.fi/blogit/koronatsunami-mullisti-luovat-alat-mita-opimme-liiketoimintamallien-ketterasta-kehittamisesta

Rinne, S., & Raudasoja, A. (2020). Vocational Teachers’ Competence Objectives are Changing. HAMK Unlimited Professional 19.5.2020. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi-fe2020051938269

Ryymin, E., Lamberg, L., & Pakarinen, A. (2020). How to Digitally Enhance Bioeconomy Collaboration: Multidisciplinary Research Team Ideation for Technology Innovation. Technology Innovation Management Review, 10, 11, 31-39. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22215/timreview/1401

Ryymin, E & Lamberg, L. Tulevaisuus on monitieteinen. HAMK Unlimited Professional 11.9. 2020.

Ryymin, E., Lilja, T., Tuominen, P., Niskanen, N. Corporan, M. & Paredes Crousset, J. R. (2020). Co-Design of Transnational Education between
the Dominican Republic and Finland
. HAMK Unlimited Journal 29.10. 2020.

Ryymin, E, Korhonen, A.-M., Maetoloa, K. & Lindroos, H. (2020). Digital Competence Development at Work. HAMK Unlimited Journal 6.4.2020.

Ryymin, E., Postareff, L. & Rintala, H. (2020). Uutta tutkimusta jatkuvasta oppimisesta työssä. HAMK Unlimited Professional 17.4.2020.

2019

Brauer, S., Korhonen, A-M & Siklander, P. (2019). Online Scaffolding in Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning in Vocational Teacher Education. Educational research. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2018.1562953

Korhonen, A.M., Ruhalahti, S. & Veermans, M. (2019). The online learning process and scaffolding in student teachers’ personal learning environments. Education and Information Technologies, 24(1), 755-779. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9793-4 

Lilja, T., Pukkila, P. & Rinne, S. (2019). Katsaus kielelliseen saavutettavuuteen OhjaamoissaHAMK Unlimited Professional 21.2.2019.

Majabacka B., Paananen H., (2019). Laajennettu todellisuus virtuaalisissa neuvontapalveluissa – hyötyä vai hypeä? UAS Journal 4/2019.

Paananen H., Rusanen T., (2019). Osaamisperusteisuutta tukevan osaamismerkkiohjelmiston valinta. Oulun ammattikorkeakoulu, ePooki 84/2019.

Pukkila, P., Rinne, S., Lilja, T. & Ikonen, T. (2019). Monikulttuurinen ohjauskompetenssi vahvistaa Ohjaamojen saavutettavuutta. HAMK Unlimited Journal 21.2.2019.

Raudasoja, A., Heino, S. & Rinne, S. (2019). Osaamisidentiteetin rakentuminen ammatillisessa koulutuksessa. HAMK Unlimited Journal 5.8.2019.

Rintala, H., Nokelainen, P., & Pylväs, L. (2019). Informal workplace learning: Turning the workplace into a learning site. In S. McGrath, M. Mulder, J. Papier & R. Suart (Eds.), Handbook of vocational education and training (pp. 729–742). Cham: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94532-3_97

Ryymin, E., Gautam, M., & Väisänen, T. (2019). Collaborative Robots Transforming Work and LearningHAMK Unlimited Journal 23.9.2019.

Ryymin, E. (ed.) (2019). Global Teachers Change Paradigms – Practical Paths to New Learning. HAMKin julkaisuja 1/2019. Tampere: Hämeen kirjapaino oy.

Ryymin, E., Korhonen, A.-M. & Niinimäki, J. (2019). Ammatillisten opettajien digipedagogiikan erikoistumiskoulutus ennakoi työelämän murrosta. HAMK Unlimited Professional 4.4.2019.

2018

Cao, Y., Postareff, L., & Toom, A. (2018). Teacher educators’ approaches to teaching and the nexus with self-efficacy and burnout: examples from two teachers’ universities in China. Journal of Education for Teaching. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2018.1450954

Corado, C. & Ryymin, E. (2018). Building Quality Education and Sustainable Future in Finnish-Brazilian Teacher EducationFinnish  Journal of Professional and Vocational Education, Digital Special Edition 20(5), 98-104.

Chen, Z. & Ryymin, E. (2018). Made in China 2025 -program and its requirements for VET teachers. HAMK Unlimited Professional 21.12.2018.

Chen, Z., Ryymin, E. & Kunnari, I. (2018). The Comparisons of Vocational Teacher Education in Finland and China. HAMK Unlimited Professional 18.5.2018.

Parkkonen, V. & Rinne, S. (2018). Digitaalisuus opinto-ohjauksessa: kokemuksia ja hyviä käytänteitä. HAMK Unlimited Professional 19.2.2018.

Raudasoja A., Rinne S., (2018). Ammatillisen koulutuksen oppimisympäristöt. Teoksessa Kukkonen H., Raudasoja A. (Toim.). Osaaminen esiin: Ammatillisen koulutuksen reformi ja osaamisperustaisuus. Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulun julkaisuja 23, 56-63.

Raudasoja, A. & Rinne, S. (2018). Opettajien osaamisen kehittyminen kohti uutta osaamisidentiteettiäHAMK Unlimited Journal 15.5.2018.

Rintala, H., & Nokelainen, P. (2018). Työn murros haastaa ammatillisen koulutuksen. Talous & Yhteiskunta, 2/2018. http://www.labour.fi/ty/tylehti/ty/ty22018pdf/ty22018RintalaNokelainen.pdf

Ryymin, E., Corado, C., Friman, M., Majuri, M. & Viskari, M. (2018). Leading research and development for educational innovations. Revista Ibero-Americana de Estudos em Educação, Araraquara, 13, Especial 1, Maio (2018), 324-336. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21723/riaee.nesp1.v13.2018

Ryymin, E. & Vainio, L. (2018). Successful Collaboration between Higher Education and Working Life requires Pedagogical Competence and Communication Skills from Teachers. Yliopistopedagogiikka (Journal of Higher Education), 25(2), 53-55.

Vainio, L. & Ryymin, E. (2018). Developing a Hamkoid through experimentation. HAMK Unlimited Professional 1.6.2018.

2017

Rinne, S., Vaario, M. & Kivelä, N. (2017). Uusien oppimisratkaisujen kehittäminen Ammattiopisto Tavastiassa. HAMK Unlimited Professional 20.12.2017.

Ruhalahti, S., Korhonen, A-M. & Rasi, P. (2017). Authentic, Dialogical Knowledge Construction: a Blended and Mobile Teacher Education Programme. Educational Research, 59(4) 373-390. DOI: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00131881.2017.1369858

2016

Eerola, T. (2016). Our Understanding of the Pedagogy of Vocational Top Expertise. In Eerola, T. (ed.) The Pedagogy of Vocational Top Expertise. Häme University of Applied Sciences, 8-14.

Eerola T., Tuominen P., Hakkarainen R., Laurikainen M., Mero N., (2014). ROLL OUT THE TALENT: Final project report. HAMKin e-julkaisuja 3/2014, Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulu.

Eerola, T. (ed.) (2013). Towards Vocational Top Expertise. HAMKin e-julkaisuja 11/2013, Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulu.

Huhtamäki, A., Pesonen, A. & Puotiniemi, M. (2014). Työhyvinvointikoulutusta organisaation ja yksilön eduksi. ePooki. Oulun ammattikorkeakoulun tutkimus- ja kehitystyön julkaisut 10.

Postareff, L., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2015). What triggers emotions in university teaching? Journal of Professional and Vocational Education, 17(2), 83-96.

Ruhalahti, S., Korhonen, A-M. & Ruokamo, H. (2016) The Dialogical Authentic Netlearning Activity (DIANA) model for collaborative knowledge construction in mOOC. The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning, 4(2), 58-67.

Virtanen, V., Postareff, L., & Hailikari, T. (2015). Millainen arviointi tukee elinikäistä oppimista? Yliopistopedagogiikka (Journal of Higher Education), 22(1), 1-11.

 

 

 

  • Essi Ryymin
  • Essi Ryymin
  • Principal Research Scientist, Ph.D.
  • Puh. +358 50 4617557
  • Interests: future working skills, transdisciplinary innovations, global education
  • Laura Lamberg
  • Project Researcher, M.A., Ph.D. Candidate
  • Puh. +358 503062421
  • Interests: sustainability transformations, transdisciplinary innovations, wicked problems
  • Annukka Pesonen
  • Senior Lecturer, M.Ed., Ph.D. Candidate
  • Interests: educational technology, CSCL, SLR, creative collaboration
  • Soili Rinne
  • Senior Lecturer, M.A., Ph. D. Candidate
  • Puh. +358 50 466 5539
  • Interests: digital teaching and learning, future working life, collective competence identity

HÄME UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES